The essential genes in DEG are extracted from the following papers:

Akerley, B. J., Rubin, E. J., Novick, V. L., Amaya K., Judson N. et al., 2002 A genome-scale analysis for identification of genes required for growth or survival of Haemophilus influenzae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99: 966-971. [PubMed]

Hutchison, C. A., Peterson, S. N., Gill, S. R. , Cline, R. T., White, O. et al., 1999 Global transposon mutagenesis and a minimal Mycoplasma genome. Science 286: 2165-2169. [PubMed]

Ji, Y., Zhang, B., Van, S. F., Horn, Warren, P. et al., 2001 Identification of critical staphylococcal genes using conditional phenotypes generated by antisense RNA. Science 293: 2266-2269. [PubMed]

Judson, N., Mekalanos, J. J., 2000 TnAraOut, a transposon-based approach to identify and characterize essential bacterial genes. Nat Biotechnol 18: 740-745. [PubMed]

Kobayashi, K., Ehrlich, S. D., Albertini, A., Amati G., Andersen, K. K. et al., 2003 Essential Bacillus subtilis genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100: 4678-4683. [PubMed]

Forsyth, R. A., Haselbeck, R. J. et al., 2002 A genome-wide strategy for the identification of essential genes in Staphylococcus aureus. Mol Microbiol. 43:1387-400. [PubMed]

Thanassi, J.A., Hartman-Neumann, S.L. et al., 2002 Identification of 113 conserved essential genes using a high-throughput gene disruption system in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Nucleic Acids Res. 30:3152-62. [PubMed]

Salama, N.R., Shepherd, B., Falkow, S., 2004 Global Transposon Mutagenesis and Essential Gene Analysis of Helicobacter pylori. J Bacteriol. 186:7926-7935. [PubMed]

The essential genes in E. coli genome were extracted from the web site,, in which the essential genes are collected from a large number of related references.

The essential genes in yeast genome were extracted from the yeast genome database (, which is maintained by the Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences.

Glass, J.I., Assad-Garcia, N., Alperovich, N. et al., 2006 Essential genes of a minimal bacterium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103: 425-30. [PubMed]

Gerdes, S.Y., Scholle, M.D., Campbell, J.W. et al., 2003 Experimental determination and system level analysis of essential genes in Escherichia coli MG1655. J Bacteriol. 185(19):5673-84. [PubMed]

Sassetti, C.M., Boyd, D.H., Rubin, E.J., 2003 Genes required for mycobacterial growth defined by high density mutagenesis. Mol Microbiol. 48(1):77-84. [PubMed]

Knuth, K., Niesalla, H., Hueck, C.J., Fuchs, T.M., 2004 Large-scale identification of essential Salmonella genes by trapping lethal insertions. Mol Microbiol. 51(6):1729-44. [PubMed]

Ko, K.S., Lee, J.Y., Song, J.H. et al., 2006 Screening of Essential Genes in Staphylococcus aureus N315 Using Comparative Genomics and Allelic Replacement Mutagenesis. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 16(4):623-632.

Song, J.H., Ko, K.S., Lee, J.Y. et al., 2005 Identification of Essential Genes in Streptococcus pneumoniae by Allelic Replacement Mutagenesis. Mol Cells. 19(3):365-74. [PubMed]

Gallagher LA, Ramage E, Jacobs MA, et al (2007). A comprehensive transposon mutant library of Francisella novicida, a bioweapon surrogate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 104:1009-14. [PubMed]

de Berardinis V, Vallenet D, Castelli V, et al (2008). A complete collection of single-gene deletion mutants of Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1. Mol Syst Biol. [PubMed]

French CT, Lao P, Loraine AE, et al (2008). Large-scale transposon mutagenesis of Mycoplasma pulmonis. Mol Microbiol. [PubMed]

Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, et al (2006). Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection. Mol Syst Biol. [PubMed]

Liberati NT, Urbach JM, Miyata S, et al (2006). An ordered, nonredundant library of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14 transposon insertion mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103:2833-8. [PubMed]

Kamath RS, Fraser AG, Dong Y, et al (2003). Systematic functional analysis of the Caenorhabditis elegans genome using RNAi. Nature, 421:231-7. [PubMed]

Meinke D, Muralla R, Sweeney C, et al(2008). Identifying essential genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Trends Plant Sci, 13:483-91.[PubMed]

Amsterdam A, Nissen RM, Sun Z, et al (2004). Identification of 315 genes essential for early zebrafish development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101:12792-7. [PubMed]

Liao BY, Zhang J (2007). Mouse duplicate genes are as essential as singletons. Trends Genet, 23:378-81. [PubMed]

Liao BY, Zhang J (2008). Null mutations in human and mouse orthologs frequently result in different phenotypes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 105:6987-92. [PubMed]

Spradling AC, Stern D, Beaton A, et al (1999). The Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project gene disruption project: Single P-element insertions mutating 25% of vital Drosophila genes. Genetics, 153:135-77. [PubMed]

Giaever G, Chu AM, Ni L, et al (2002). Functional profiling of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. Nature, 418:387-91. [PubMed]

Langridge GC, Phan MD, Turner DJ, et al (2009). Simultaneous assay of every Salmonella Typhi gene using one million transposon mutants. Genome Res, 19:2308-16. [PubMed]

Chaudhuri RR, Allen AG, Owen PJ, et al (2009). Comprehensive identification of essential Staphylococcus aureus genes using Transposon-Mediated Differential Hybridisation (TMDH). BMC Genomics, 10:291. [PubMed]

Hu W, Sillaots S, Lemieux S, et al (2007). Essential gene identification and drug target prioritization in Aspergillus fumigatus. PLoS Pathog, 3:e24. [PubMed]

Cameron DE, Urbach MJ, Mekalanos JJ (2008). A defined transposon mutant library and its use in identifying motility genes in Vibrio cholerae. PNAS, 105(25):8736-8741. [PubMed]

Christen B, Abeliuk E, Collier JM, et al (2011). The essential genome of a bacterium. Molecular Systems Biology, 7:528. [PubMed]

Xu P, Ge XC, Chen L, et al (2011). Genome-wide essential gene identification in Streptococcus sanguinis, Sci. Rep. 1, 125; DOI:10.1038/srep00125. [PubMed]

Goodman Al, et al (2009). Identifying Genetic Determinants Needed to Establish a Human Gut Symbiont in Its Habitat. Cell Host & Microbe, 6: 279-289. [PubMed]

Klein BA, et al (2012). Identification of essential genes of the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas. BMC Genomics, 13: 578. [PubMed]

Baugh, Loren, et al. "Combining Functional and Structural Genomics to Sample the Essential Burkholderia Structome." PloS one 8.1 (2013): e53851. [PubMed]